傳統建築入榫工藝

榫卯結構

中國古建築以木材、磚瓦為主要建築材料,以木構架結構為主要的結構方式,由立柱、橫梁、順檁等主要構件建造而成,各個構件之間的結點以榫卯相吻合,構成富有彈性的框架。榫卯是極為精巧的發明,這種構件連接方式,使得中國傳統的木結構成為超越了當代建築排架、框架或者剛架的特殊柔性結構體,不但可以承受較大的荷載,而且允許產生一定的變形,在地震荷載下通過變形抵消一定的地震能量,減小結構的地震響應。

Mortise and tenon

The mortise and tenon joint has been used for thousands of years by woodworkers around the world to join pieces of wood, mainly when the adjoining pieces connect at an angle of 90°. In its basic form it is both simple and strong. Although there are many joint variations, the basic mortise and tenon comprises two components: the mortise hole and the tenon tongue. The tenon, formed on the end of a member generally referred to as a rail, is inserted into a square or rectangular hole cut into the corresponding member. The tenon is cut to fit the mortise hole exactly and usually has shoulders that seat when the joint fully enters the mortise hole. The joint may be glued, pinned, or wedged to lock it in place.

This joint is also used with other materials. For example, it is a traditional method for stonemasons and blacksmiths.

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傳統建築入榫斗拱

榫卯是在兩個木構件上所採用的一種凹凸結合的連接方式。凸出部分叫榫(或榫頭);凹進部分叫卯(或榫眼、榫槽),榫和卯咬合,起到連接作用。這是中國古代建築、家具及其它木製器械的主要結構方式。榫卯結構是榫和卯的結合,是木件之間多與少、高與低、長與短之間的巧妙組合,可有效地限制木件向各個方向的扭動。最基本的榫卯結構由兩個構件組成,其中一個的榫頭插入另一個的卯眼中,使兩個構件連接並固定。榫頭入卯眼的部分被稱為榫舌,其餘部分則稱作榫肩。758575062237498988

榫卯結構廣泛用於建築,同時也廣泛用於家具,體現出家具與建築的密切關係。榫卯結構應用於房屋建築後,雖然每個構件都比較單薄,但是它整體上卻能承受巨大的壓力。這種結構不在於個體的強大,而是互相結合,互相支撐,這種結構成了後代建築和中式家具的基本模式。

Dougong (Chinese: 斗拱; pinyin: dǒugǒng; literally: “cap [and] block”) is a unique structural element of interlocking wooden brackets, one of the most important elements in traditional Chinese architecture.

The use of dougong first appeared in buildings of the late centuries BC and evolved into a structural network that joined pillars and columns to the frame of the roof. Dougong was widely used in the ancient Chinese during the Spring and Autumn Period (770–476 BC) and developed into a complex set of interlocking parts by its peak in the Tang and Song periods. The pieces are fitted together by joinery alone without glue or fasteners, due to the precision and quality of the carpentry.

After the Song Dynasty, brackets and bracket sets became more ornamental than structural when used in palatial structures and important religious buildings, no longer the traditional dougong.

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傳統建築入榫斗拱

榫卯結構按構合作用來歸類,大致可分為三大類型:

面與面

一類主要是作面與面的接合,也可以是兩條邊的拼合,還可以是面與邊的交接構合。如“槽口榫”、“企口榫”、“燕尾榫”、“穿帶榫”、“扎榫”等。

點結構

另一類是作為“點”的結構方法。主要用於作橫豎材丁字結合,成角結合,交叉結合,以及直材和弧形材的伸延接合。如“格肩榫”、“雙榫”、“雙夾榫”、“勾掛榫”、“鍥釘榫”、“半榫”、“通榫”等等。

構件組合

還有一類是將三個構件組合一起並相互連結的構造方法,這種方法除運用以上的一些榫卯聯合結構外,都是一些更為複雜和特殊的做法。如常見的有“托角榫”、“長短榫”、“抱肩榫”、“粽角榫”等。

Miter joint

Miter joint of two pipes
A miter joint (mitre in British English), sometimes shortened to miter, is a joint made by beveling each of two parts to be joined, usually at a 45° angle, to form a corner, usually a 90° angle. For woodworking, a disadvantage of a miter joint is its weakness, but it can be strengthened with a spline. There are two common variations of a splined miter joint, one where the spline is long and runs the length of the mating surfaces and another where the spline is perpendicular to the joined edges.

Common applications include picture frames, pipes (e.g. pipe organs), and molding.
Non-perpendicular joints[edit]
For miter joints occurring at angles other than 90°, for materials of the same cross-section the proper cut angle must be determined so that the two pieces to be joined meet flush (i.e. one piece’s mitered end is not longer than the adjoining piece). To find the cut angle divide the angle at which the two pieces meet by two. Technically two different cut angles are required; one for each piece, where the second angle is 90° plus the aforementioned cut angle, but due to angular limitations in common cutting implements (hand circular saws, table saws) a single angle is required and is used to cut the first piece in one direction and the second piece in the opposite direction.

 

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中國古典家具的榫卯設計不同於其他中國傳統手工藝品,如玉雕、牙雕、鼻煙內畫壺等,完全是技巧的純熟,為了裝飾而裝飾,取悅於人們的視覺快感。而家具中的設計必須在滿足人們的視覺美感後,還要求科學合理性,使其長久的耐用。這就要求每個木料榫頭卯眼,必鬚根據家具的造型組合,從力學上每個木料所受到的承受力,在古代木工師傅的多年目測經驗中,能準確地判斷出來。

During the Ming Dynasty an innovation occurred through the invention of new wooden components that aided dougong in supporting the roof. This allowed dougong to add a decorative element to buildings in the traditional Chinese integration of artistry and function, and bracket sets became smaller and more numerous. Brackets could be hung under eaves, giving the appearance of graceful baskets of flowers while also supporting the roof.

The Bao’en Temple in Sichuan is a good example of the Ming style. It has forty-eight types and 2,200 sets of dougong to support and ornament it. It is a well-preserved fifteenth century monastery complex located in northwestern Sichuan province, China. It was built by Wang Xi, a local chieftain, between 1440 and 1446 during Emperor Yingzong’s reign (1427–64) in the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).

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明式家具的榫卯結合

明式紅木家具有榫卯結合近百種,常見的有格角榫、托角榫、粽角榫、燕尾榫、夾頭榫、抱肩榫、龍風榫、楔釘榫、插肩榫、圍欄榫、套榫、掛榫、半榫與札榫等。

Dovetail joint

For other uses, see Dovetail (disambiguation).
A finished dovetail joint.
Dovetail woodworking joints on a Romanian church.
A dovetail joint or simply dovetail is a joint technique most commonly used in woodworking joinery (carpentry) including furniture, cabinets, carcase construction, log buildings and traditional timber framing. Noted for its resistance to being pulled apart (tensile strength), the dovetail joint is commonly used to join the sides of a dr of one board interlock with a series of tails cut into the end of another board. The pins and tails have a trapezoidal shape. Once glued, a wooden dovetail joint requires no mechanical fasteners.
The dovetail joint probably pre-dates written history. Some of the earliest known examples of the dovetail joint are in furniture entombed with mummies dating from First Dynasty of ancient Egypt, as well the tombs of Chinese emperors. The dovetail design is an important method of distinguishing various periods of furniture.
In Europe the dovetail joint is also called a swallow-tail joint or a fantail joint.awer to the front. A series of pins cut to extend from the end

 

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榫卯結構歷史悠久。研究發現,早在河姆渡新石器時代,我們的祖先就已經開始使用榫卯了,榫卯結構作為中華民族獨特的工藝創造,有著悠久的歷史。中國傳統家具(特別是用明清家具)之所以達到今天的水平,與對這種特徵的運用有著直接的關係,也正是這種巧妙結構的運用,提升了中式家具的藝術價值,尤為國外家具和建築藝術家們所讚歎。中式家具之所以又被稱之為傳統家具,榫卯結構是核心。

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榫卯結構組合的家具比用鐵釘連接的家具更加結實耐用。這種組合可有效地限制木件之間向各個方向的扭動。而鐵釘連接就做不到。比如,用鐵釘將兩根木棖做T字型組合,豎棖與橫棖很容易被扭曲而改變角度,而用榫卯結合,就不會被扭曲。其次,金屬容易鏽蝕或氧化,而真正的紅木家具,可以使用幾百年或上千年。許多明式家具距今幾百年了,雖顯滄桑,但木質堅硬如初。如果用鐵釘組合這樣的家具,很可能木質完好,但由於連接的金屬鏽蝕、疲勞、老化等,而使家具散架。

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榫卯結構的家具便於運輸。許多紅木家具是拆裝運輸的,到了目的地再組合安裝起來的,非常方便。如果用鐵釘連接家具,雖說可以做成部分的分體式,但像椅子等小木件較多的家具,就做不到了。

榫卯結構的家具便於維修。純正紅木家具可以使用成百上千年,總會出現問題的,比如某一根棖子折斷了需要更換等。用鐵釘連接的家具,做這處拆卸更換就不像榫卯結構家具來得容易。

榫卯品質高。紅木木質堅硬,而鐵釘是靠擠和鑽勁硬楔進去的,此過程極易造成木材劈裂,這一點木工師傅都非常清楚。而使用榫卯連接紅木家具,可以大大提升紅木家具的內在品質,這也是中國傳統工藝製作的紅木家具具有增值收藏價值的一個重要原因。

Finger joint

Finger joint or box combing

A finger joint, also known as a comb or box joint, is a woodworking joint made by cutting a set of complementary rectangular cuts in two pieces of wood, which are then glued. To visualize a finger joint simply interlock the fingers of your hands at a ninety degree angle; hence the name “finger joint.” It is stronger than a butt joint or lap joint, and often contributes to the aesthetics (appearance) of the piece.

Alternate names include box-pin joint or box joint.

Applications

A tapered or scarfed finger joint is the most common joint used to form long pieces of lumber from solid boards; the result is finger-jointed lumber.

The finger joint can also be invaluable when fixing tables and chairs and also can be used in such things as floor boards, timber roof and door construction. This is also used in design technology for students. Finger joints can be hard to make without the right tools.

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